Show simple item record


First description of extrafloral nectaries in Opuntia robusta (Cactaceae): Anatomy and ultrastructure

dc.contributor.authorSandoval Molina, Mario Alberto
dc.contributor.authorZavaleta Mancera, Hilda Araceli
dc.contributor.authorLeón Solano, Héctor Javier
dc.contributor.authorSolache Ramos, Lupita Tzenyatze
dc.contributor.authorJenner, Bartosz
dc.contributor.authorMorales Rodríguez, Simón
dc.contributor.authorPatrón Soberano, Olga Araceli
dc.contributor.authorJanczur, Mariusz Krzysztof
dc.contributor.editorPublic Library of Science
dc.identifier.citationSandoval-Molina MA, Zavaleta-Mancera HA, León-Solano HJ, Solache-Ramos LT, Jenner B, Morales-Rodríguez S, et al. (2018) First description of extrafloral nectaries in Opuntia robusta (Cactaceae): Anatomy and ultrastructure. PLoS ONE 13(7): e0200422.
dc.description.abstract"To our knowledge, there are no studies about the structure and ecological function of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in Opuntia robusta. This is the first description of EFNs in O. robusta, where young spines have an interesting structure and a secreting function, which are different from EFNs described in other Cactaceae species. We used light, scanning-electron, and transmission-electron microscopy to examine morphology, anatomy, and ultrastructure of the secretory spines in areoles in female and hermaphrodite individuals of O. robusta. Young cladodes develop areoles with modified and secretory spines as EFNs only active during the early growth phase. EFNs are non-vascularized structures, with no stomata, that consist of a basal meristematic tissue, a middle elongation region, and an apical secretory cone formed by large globular epidermal cells, containing nectar and medullar elongated cells. We observed the presence of Golgi apparatus, vesicles and plastids in the medullar and sup-epidermal cells of the spine. We propose that the nectar is stored in the globular cells at the apex of the spine and secreted by breaking through the globular cells or by pores. We recorded a more frequent presence of ants on younger cladode sprouts producing young secreting spines: this result is parallel with the predictions of Optimal Defense Hypothesis, which states that younger plant organs should be better defended than older ones because their loss produces a higher fitness impairment. Although Diaz-Castelazo’s hypothesis states that a more complex structure of EFNs correlates with their lower among-organs dispersion, comparing to less complex EFNs, non-vascularized structure of EFNs in O. robusta is not associated with their higher among-organs dispersion likened to O. stricta, which produces vascularized EFNs. We provide evidence that this characteristic is not a good taxonomic feature of Opuntia genus. Moreover, the comparison of EFNs of O. robusta and O. stricta suggests that the hypothesis of Diaz-Castelazo should be revised: it is rather a rule but not a law."
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internacional
dc.subject.classificationCIENCIAS TECNOLÓGICAS
dc.titleFirst description of extrafloral nectaries in Opuntia robusta (Cactaceae): Anatomy and ultrastructure
dc.rights.accessAcceso Abierto

Files in this item


This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internacional
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internacional