Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end planes to stable loops caused by annealing
Kim, Yoong Ahm
Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio
"Here we investigate the stabilization process on the active outer/inner surfaces (or the end plane of a graphene sheet) for shortened cup-stacked-type carbon nanotubes caused by annealing, utilizing both analytic and electrochemical techniques. The suggested schematic procedure for loop formation is as follows: (a) formation of single-type loops between neighbouring truncated conical graphene layers at 900–1200?°C through a zipping mechanism after the evolution of hydrogen gas; (b) the transition from single- to multi-type loops above 1500?°C accompanying a decrease in specific surface area."