Photochemical and electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide thin films: tuning the nature of surface defects
Quezada Renteria, Javier Alan
Ruiz Garcia, Cristina
Cházaro Ruiz, Luis Felipe
Rangel Méndez, José René
Ania, Conchi O.
"Individual and combined photo(electro)chemical reduction treatments of graphene oxide thin films have been performed to modulate the type of defects introduced into the graphene sheets during the reduction. These were characterized by X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies, nuclear reaction analysis and electrochemical methods. Illumination of the graphene oxide thin film electrodes with low irradiance simulated solar light provoked the photoassisted reduction of the material with negligible photothermal effects. The photoreduced graphene oxide displayed a fragmented sp2 network due to the formation of a high density of defects (carbon vacancies) and the selective removal of epoxides and hydroxyl groups. In contrast, the electrochemical reduction under mild polarization conditions favored the formation of sp3 defects over vacancies, with a preferential removal of carbonyl and carboxyl groups over hydroxyl/epoxides. Used in conjunction, mild photochemical and electrochemical treatments allowed the obtainment of reduced graphene oxides with varied reduction degrees (ca. C/O ratio ranging from 4.9 to 2.2), and surface defects. Furthermore, the electrochemical reduction prevented the formation of vacancies during the subsequent illumination step. In contrast, both types of defects were accumulated when the GO electrode was first exposed to illumination and then polarized."
Knowledge areaQUÍMICA FÍSICA
PublisherRoyal Society of Chemistry