Wastewater Contaminated with Hydrazine as Scavenger Agent for Hydrogen Production by Cu/Ti Nanostructures
Hinojosa Reyes, Mariana
Camposeco Solís, Roberto
Rodríguez González, Vicente
"Cu/Ti photocatalysts were prepared by the sol-gel process with different copper loadings (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 wt.%) and then thermally treated at several calcination temperatures from 400 to 600 °C. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 physisorption, Scanning Electronic Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Ultraviolet-visible-Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy as a function of the temperature, (Temperature Programmed Reduction) TPR-chemisorption, XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) and OH determination through DRIFTS (Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy). The Cu/Ti photocatalysts were evaluated for the photocatalytic production of hydrogen using hydrazine as scavenging agent. Moreover, a detailed study of the Cu1+/Cu2+ ratio and the corresponding formation of copper oxide was carried out to understand the correlation between the copper species and the photocatalytic activity. Simultaneously, the OH groups on the TiO2 surface also show insights into the behavior of these materials during the photocatalytic reaction. Despite the low hydrazine concentration (20 mM), the 1.0 (wt.%) Cu/Ti 500 photocatalyst enhanced the hydrogen production three and two times more than photolysis and bare TiO2, respectively. The 1.0 Cu/Ti 500 photocatalyst displayed outstanding stability for at least three continuous cycles of 8 h each, preserving the hydrogen production. The novel ability shown in this work represents an alternative to reduce the hydrazine residues in wastewater to transform it into a hydrogen-producing energy source and must be extended to other reductive pollutants found in wastewater. "